Classification of centrifuges

  • ACCORDING TO SPEED –
    • Desktop clinical centrifuges: below 3000rpm
    • High speed centrifuges : 20,000 to 25,000rpm
    • The Ultracentrifuge :75,000rpm
      • a. Drive and speed control
      • b. Temperature control
      • c. Vacuum System
      • d. Rotors
  • ACCORDING TO ROTOR ORIENTATION –
  • Swinging bucket rotors
  • Fixed angle
  • Vertical
  • ACCORDING TO INTENDED USES –
    • Ultracentrifuges
      • Theseare optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds and are popular in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry and polymer science. This type may include preparative or analytical, fixed-angle or swing head varieties.
    • Haematocrit centrifuges
      • These are used to measure the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.
    • Gas centrifuges
      • Gas Centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
      • A prominent use of gas centrifuges is for the separation of uranium- 235 from uranium- 238. The separation of uranium requires the material in gaseous form; uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is used for uranium enrichment.
      • Including Zippe-type centrifuges.

Approximate Estimated Separative Power of Selected Gas Centrifuges1

VARIOUS CENTRIFUGE MODELS LENGTH (M) WALL SPEED (m/s) SEPARATIVE POWER (SWU/yr)
Zippe 0.30 360 0.886
P1 2.00 350 5.580
IR-1 2.00 330 4.930
IR-2m 1.25 480 6.563
TC-10 type 3.20 500 18.23

SWU :- “Separative work” – the amount of separation done by an enrichment process – is a function of the concentrations of the feedstock, the enriched output, and the depleted tailings; and is expressed in units which are so calculated as to be proportional to the total input (energy / machine operation time) and to the mass processed. Separative work is not energy. The same amount of separative work will require different amounts of energy depending on the efficiency of the separation technology. Separative work is measured in Separative work units SWU, kg SW, or kg UTA (from the German Urantrennarbeit – literally uranium separation work)

1 SWU = 1 kg SW = 1 kg UTA

Source: – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enriched_uranium

  • ACCORDING TO THEIR CONSTRUCTION –
    • Solid bowl centrifuges (decanters)
    • Basket centrifuges
      • - Perforated basket centrifuges
      • - Imperforated basket centrifuges
    • Disk bowl centrifuges
  • INDUSTRIAL CENTRIFUGES ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF SEPARATION OF THE HIGH DENSITY FRACTION FROM LOW DENSITY ONE –
    • Screen Centrifuges
    • Screen/scroll centrifuges
    • Pusher centrifuges
    • Peeler centrifuges
    • Decanter centrifuges
    • Solid Bowl centrifuges
    • Conical plate centrifuges

1 Institute for Science & International Security Report (ISIS),www.isis-online.org